Published By
IDTechEx
Follow us:
follow us on twitter
subscrive to our rss feed
follow us on facebook
Email
Password
IDTechEx
Energy Harvesting Europe 2015
Energy Harvesting Journal

Lithium and gallium compounds in the new electronics and electrics

ZoomLithium and gallium compounds in the new electronics and electrics
Analyst IDTechEx has been taking a close look at the elements and compounds used in the new electronics and electrics -components just entering a phase of very rapid growth in sales. These components vary from Nano Electro-mechanical Circuits NEMS to fuel cells that many leading automotive manufacturers will put into on-road vehicles in 2015. Another example is wide area flexible photovoltaics now creating additional large markets based on many different chemistries. We identify the chemical formulations that are most widely deployed. We track those that are most deployable because they are exceptionally versatile in high-added-value electrical functions, giving two important pointers. Other criteria are also used in the new report, Most Needed Chemicals for New Disruptive Electronics and Electrics: De-risk your investment External Link.
Detailed analysis to serve the chemical industry
The data have been classified by twenty electrical functions performed by each formulation such as active electrode, semiconductor, electret, light emitter, memristor, electroactive (artificial muscle) or laser action. We do this for 37 families of newly popular or imminently popular component. 26 families of most popular and imminently most popular element and compound are charted against these criteria with a plethora of actual examples of formulation to give unique and fascinating maps of where the chemicals and materials industries should concentrate to create the business of 100 billion dollars in fine chemicals that is emerging.
 
The materials themselves are interesting. They are often in forms previously rarely encountered in electronics and electrics such as nano-powders, elastomer inks and gels. Lesser used compounds are also identified by these criteria, something of interest to the smaller niche players in the industry concentrating on such compounds. Examples are those based on vanadium, molybdenum, lead or zirconium tailored for new electronics and electrics. Printability is an increasingly common theme to gain cost reduction, performance improvement and flexibility, conformability and even foldability in "Origami electronics". The world's largest event on printed electronics is "Printed Electronics USA" in Santa Clara California December 5 and 6. See http://www.idtechex.com/printed-electronics-usa/pe.asp External Link.
Major place for lithium and gallium compounds
In this article we look at the major place being taken by lithium and gallium compounds, areas so fertile that they have led us to do a specific analysis of lithium-ion and other lithium rechargeable battery needs in a new report, 138 Lithium-based Rechargeable Battery Manufacturers: Chemistry, Strategy, Success, Potential External Link. It looks in much more detail at the chemical needs of the market of over ten billion dollars nearly upon us for lithium compounds in forms suitable for slot coating and screen printing in these batteries now seen in everything from Mars rovers, electric aircraft, buses and cars to almost all mobile phones and other consumer electronics.
Rechargeable batteries become more complex
The report analyses how the battery anode, electrolyte and cathode chemistry and morphology are being totally changed in formulation and structure in order to give us such things as affordable pure-electric cars with much better range and the cleverest mobile phones lasting weeks before recharge - all within the coming decade. Pre-coating with fine carbon elastomers on the cathode and anode foil get introduced for four technical reasons. Active layer can become active layers and even carbon nanotube or graphene technology hosting lithium compounds may replace activated carbon from organic, "carbon from carbide" CFC, aerogel and other sources. Can flammable fluoropolymer binders for the lithium compounds be replaced? Certainly, the cathodes are most complex with Co,Mn,Ni,Fe and other elements variously combined with lithium and this is clarified in a pie chart in the report. The simpler one for anode chemistry is shown below.
Focus of anode chemistry in lithium-based batteries including lithium-ion and "rechargeable lithium". LTO = lithium titanate. Some manufacturers offer many types.
 
ZoomLithium and gallium compounds in the new electronics and electrics
 
Source IDTechEx report "138 Lithium-based Rechargeable Battery Manufacturers: Chemistry, Strategy, Success, Potential"
Supercapacitors are the new batteries?
Supercapacitors are now a market growing at 30% compound, with supplier financials to prove it. Cellergy has moved from slot coating of the active layers using scrapers to the more controllable advanced screen printing and this affects the formulations used. Attention is turning to the combination of lithium-ion battery with supercapacitor. One supercapacitor electrode and one lithium-ion electrode results in a "battery" retaining quite good energy density but adding much better power density, low temperature performance, life and cost - or such is the dream being pursued by many of the world's largest companies and many start-ups. Lithium chemistry is key with these "Asymmetrical Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors AEDLC" as well. See them increasingly referred to as lithium capacitors or lithium-ion capacitors. All this will be covered at the IDTechEx event "Supercapacitors USA" co-located with "Energy Harvesting USA" in Washington DC November 7-8. See http://www.idtechex.com/supercapacitors-usa/sc.asp External Link
Gallium chemistry widely deployed soon
Gallium chemistry is not needed in lithium-based batteries but it appears very widely elsewhere in the new electronics and electrics. We discuss it here to give something of a contrast. For example, as the new discipline of transparent electronics opens up, indium gallium zinc oxide is key as the semiconductor. Indeed it is becoming printable to give much higher frequency, higher current transistor networks in printed electronics, another newly vibrant sector.
Light emitting diodes in fast growth phase, with changes
Light emitting diodes were the basis of the spectacular Olympics Closing Ceremony recently and they are seen in car lights and are even entering home lighting now. LEDs are unlike the compact fluorescent bulbs that create large shards of glass to cut you, contain rare terbium and make you mad by putting mercury into the food chain. Increasingly, LEDs will be more affordable and they last longer, without darkening. They took twenty years to take 3% of the global lighting market but they have grabbed the next 3% in only a few years. Some LEDs can now be printed, offering the prospect of lower cost, flexibility and a host of new applications. That can involve indium gallium nitride light emitting layers. The best mobile phone display, soon to be available in television, is the organic light emitting diode OLED display where CaInGaSn layers can be useful in contrast to gallium nitride that is a candidate for power components in green electricity and electric vehicles and their charging infrastructure. The new photovoltaics gets particularly high efficiency when based on GaAs, GaAsGe, GaInAs and/or gallium indium phosphate. These formulations appear in aerospace such as satellites, for example. There is more.
 
Top image: Benchmark Electronics

Author

Dr Peter Harrop

Dr Peter Harrop

Dr Peter Harrop is the Founder and Chairman of IDTechEx.
Telephone
+44 (0)7850 258317
Email
 
 

Research

Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2015-2025

IDTechEx:logo484Hybrid and pure electric vehicles for land, water and air
 
 

Learn More

Reports

Related Topics

  • Electric Vehicles *~
  • Energy Harvesting *~
  • Printed, Flexible and Organic Electronics » Materials ~
 
 
Webinars Generic Banner
Energy Harvesting and Storage for Electronic Devic
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 2012-2022
Green_Plug
Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting 2014-2024

IDTechEx ReportsIDTechEx Reports

Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2015-2025
Brand new for October 2014
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2015-2025: Forecasts, Technologies, Markets
Updated in Aug 2014
Electric Motors for Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles 2015-2025: Land, Water, Air
Updated in Nov 2014
Wireless Power Transmission for Consumer Electronics and Electric Vehicles 2014-2024
Full details here
Energy Harvesting/ Regeneration for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2015-2025
Brand new for December 2014
Electric Motorcycles and Three Wheel Electric Vehicles 2015-2025
Updated in Oct 2014
Graphene Markets, Technologies and Opportunities 2014-2024
Updated in Aug 2014
Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors: Supercapacitors 2014-2024
Full details here
Energy Harvesting and Storage 2014-2024: Forecasts, Technologies, Players
Updated in Oct 2014
Supercapacitor Materials 2015-2025: Formulations, Forecasts, Roadmap, Companies
Updated in Dec 2014
Supercapacitor / Ultracapacitor Interviews, Strategies, Road Map 2014-2025
Updated in Oct 2014
Conductive Ink Markets 2015-2025: Forecasts, Technologies, Players
Brand new for November 2014
Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2015-2025
Brand new for October 2014
Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2014-2024
Updated in Nov 2014
Electric Aircraft 2014-2024: Trends, Projects, Forecasts
Brand new for June 2014
Future Technology for Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars 2015-2025
Full details here
Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting 2014-2024: Devices, Applications, Opportunities
Updated in Oct 2014
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Electric UAVs 2014-2024
Updated in Sept 2014
Electric Boats, Small Submarines and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) 2014-2024
Full details here
Power Electronics for Electric Vehicles 2013-2023: Forecasts, Technologies, Players
Full details here
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting 2013-2023: Forecasts, Technologies, Players
Updated in Jan 2014
Hybrid and Electric Vehicles for Military, Police & Security 2012-2022
Updated in May 2013
Analysis of over 140 Lithium-based Rechargeable Battery Manufacturers: Chemistry, Strategy, Success
Updated in Sept 2014
Industrial and Commercial Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles 2015-2025
Brand new for November 2014
Electric Vehicles for Construction, Agriculture and Mining 2015-2025
Brand new for October 2014
Barrier Layers for Flexible Electronics 2015-2025: Technologies, Markets, Forecasts
Brand new for September 2014
Hybrid and Electric Buses and Taxis 2013-2023: Forecasts, Opportunities, Players
Full details here
Two-Wheelers, Micro-EVs (Quadricycles), Mobility for Disabled 2013-2023
Updated in Nov 2014
Electroactive Polymers and Devices 2013-2018: Forecasts, Technologies, Players
Full details here
New Opportunities for Gold: Conductive Inks for the Electronics Industry 2013-2019
Full details here
Functional Materials for Future Electronics: Metals, Inorganic & Organic Compounds, Graphene, CNT
Full details here
Touch Screen Modules: Technologies, Markets, Forecasts 2012-2022
Updated in May 2013
The Solar Flare Executive Report Series
Full details here
Photovoltaic Manufacturer Shipments: Capacity, Price & Revenues 2013/2014
Full details here
Global Analysis of the Markets for Solar Products & Five-Year Forecast 2013/2014
Full details here
Structural Electronics 2015-2025: Applications, Technologies, Forecasts
Updated in Oct 2014
Metal Oxide TFT Backplanes for Displays 2014-2024: Technologies, Forecasts, Players
Brand new for August 2014
Printed, Organic & Flexible Electronics Forecasts, Players & Opportunities 2014-2024
Brand new for August 2014
Transparent Conductive Films (TCF) 2014-2024: Forecasts, Markets, Technologies
Full details here
Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) 2013-2023: Technologies, Markets, Players
Full details here
Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC/DSC) 2013-2023: Technologies, Markets, Players
Full details here
Analysis of Energy Harvesting Applications
Full details here
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 2014-2024: Forecasts, Technologies, Players
Updated in March 2014
Batteries & Supercapacitors in Consumer Electronics 2013-2023: Forecasts, Opportunities, Innovation
Updated in Feb 2014
Printed Electronics - Customer Sourcebook & Routes to Profit
Updated in July 2012
Thin Film Photovoltaics 2012-2022: Forecasts, Technologies, Analysis
Updated in Aug 2013

IDTechEx EventsIDTechEx Events