We interviewed Pietro Perlo of Fiat Central Research after he presented on "Photovoltaic and other printable functionalities enabling Efficient Electrical Mobility" to a large audience at the IDTechEx Printed Electronics Europe Event in Dresden 7 April. He declared that, "All car manufacturers will offer pure electric vehicles within 2-3 years" this being driven by government incentives and the fact that the new impregnated lithium ion batteries are perfectly safe and have much improved performance with further to go. He noted that harvesting using solar cells on cars, for example to drive a fan while the car is parked, is not a new idea. However, there can now be increased devolution from central harvesting - increasingly by transparent photovoltaics even over windows, to harvesting locally at lighting clusters etc making them self-sufficient. This is one of the key enabling technologies of pure EV and other vehicles. Pure EVs have superb environmental credentials as grid power is rapidly being made by clean and renewable sources. They conserve energy.
Conservative average daily energy produced by on-board solar cells in Torino - Average annual insolation 3.8kWh/m2/day - with existing technologies could be as much as 1.8 kWh/day (657 kWh/year), he said.
Punto like EV 657kWh/(150Wh/km)= 4380 km/year
Panda like EV 657kWh/(130Wh/km)= 5053 km/year
Micro like EV 657kWh/(80Wh/km)= 8212 km/year
An installation of 2KWp of solar panels on a garage in Torino produces 2200kWh/year. 70% (1540kWh) of this energy can be transferred to the wheels.
Punto like EV 1540kWh/(150Wh/km)=10.266 Km/year
Panda like EV 1540kWh/(130Wh/km)=18.846 km/year
Micro like EV 1540kWh/(80Wh/km)=19.250 km/year
He sees flexible CIGS as the winning technology in a few years with flexible aSi most popular for now.
By 2015 the production of modules with monocrystalline Si should be stabilised with efficiency above 22%. By 2015 the two technologies of reference will be:
- Multicrystalline silicon with production efficiencies approaching 20% at a module costs forecasted to halve by 2015 to $1.40 per watt;
- CIGS with production efficiency of the order of 15% (module) forecasted by 2015 down to 75 cents dollars per watt.
Spheral (Jap) and Sliver (AU) are very promising because both offer transparency and high efficiency under diffused light. Superior to Thin Films technologies but still not in full scale production to be judged.
- Current production of PV is about 170-190 km2/year
- 60 Millions Vehicles /year x 3m2 would be similar to180 km2/year but in a few years he foresees overproduction of PV. He considered that Conventional PV panels are not effective: PV in Motion needs integrated "smart" energy routing, he saw: Robust, light weight and "embeddable" PV on roof, body, glazing and highest possible efficiency and good operation under low and diffused light.
IDTechEx will shortly be launching a report on Electric and Hybrid Cars.
Top Image: Phylla Electric Car from FIAT
Other pictures source FIAT
For more attend: Energy Harvesting and Storage Europe 2009